Porcelain ceramic or fine stoneware
The natural preliminary materials such as clay kaolin, quartz, feldspar, lime and colour additives are pressed into the mould after successful mixing. The pressed panels pass through a so-called fast-burn roller oven, in which the material components fuse at a temperature of up to 1600 degrees Celsius. The panels can be further processed untreated as they come out of the oven, or the surface can be ground and polished after firing. A large number of technical procedures provide a wide range of design possibilities in terms of colour, structure and pattern. The exact splitting of the panels into worktops is carried out by means of waterjet cutting technology and CNC-supported processing centres. The gluing and chamfering of the workpieces is carried out with the highest precision at specialized manual work stations.
The high quality and creative look of the products made of ceramics are characterized by the use of raw materials found in nature. Thus, for example, colour differences between production batches or feldspar particles located in the material are unavoidable. Their presence is not a reason for complaint, but they correspond to the living and natural character of this stone.
The natural or matt honed surfaces are highly compacted, water repellent and do not require any further surface treatment in the form of an impregnation.
The worktops made of ceramic have a thickness of 6 mm and are reinforced by a high-quality, stable substructure. The risk of breakage is generally only given if the work piece is not properly handled. Transport and handling may only be carried out in a vertical position. The panels must not be used as a step, for example, to clean windows or to replace lamps. This creates the risk of excessive punctual load, which can lead to cracking in the sensitive web areas of the sink and hob.
Scratch and cut resistance
The ceramic worktops and tiles have a very high scratch-hardness and are therefore scratch-resistant and cut-insensitive. We recommend the use of suitable cutting boards to prevent metallurgy marks and to keep your cutting tools safe.
Ceramic worktops and tiles in natural or matt finish are resistant to conventional acids such as citric and acetic acid. Food colourings such as coffee, tea, wine, mustard, vegetables or fruit do not leave any traces that are not removable, but should be removed as soon as possible after their formation and do not allow to dry on the surface. Contact with aggressive chemicals or highly alkaline cleaners can lead to irreparable damage.
The material is heat-insensitive. Short-term placement of hot pots can generally not cause any damage. Items with very high temperatures can cause discoloration in the material over a longer period of exposure. Since cracks can also be caused by shock heat input, we recommend the use of suitable pot holders for storing hot pans, pots, baking sheets, etc. coming directly from the cooking area or from the oven.
Tile standard formats
Ceramic tiles of the product group Ceranit are matt and structured in the surfaces, depending on the material colour and are available in 6 different formats.
The material thickness is 0.6 cm. The edges of the tiles are slightly chamfered. The required dimensional tolerances are met. Please see our installation recommendation.
Floor tile wall trim are only available on request!
Panels and special formats
The format of the ceramic tiles in the surfaces matt and structured, depending on the material colour, are either 300 x 150 cm or 300 x 100 cm. The material thickness is 0.6 cm.
The indicated raw formats of the panels form the basis for the splitting into the different floor tile formats. In addition, radially extending special cuts or dimensions outside of the respectively available standard formats are also possible on request. Furthermore, the large-format panels are used for the production of worktops and cover panels.
Weight of raw panel
Thickness: 0.6 cm
Weight: 15 kg/m²
Surface finishes floor-wall
Surface – Slip resistance – Treatment
The STONE.De range offers porcelain ceramics in various surface finishes, which apart from their use characteristics differ in their appearance and degree of slip resistance. Polished, matt, natural and textured surfaces are highly compacted and therefore easy to clean. These surfaces do not require any further treatments in the form of first-treatment and/or impregnation after installation.
DIN 51130 (4)
Clean walk-off zones in the entrance area contribute significantly to the preservation of the stone floor. This area should be adequately dimensioned so that the coating is not scratched by the entry of sand particles and wet soiling does not increase the risk of slippage, especially during the winter months.
During the construction phase the floor must be protected against mechanical and chemical overloading by suitable covers.
Building basic cleaning / initial cleaning
Cleaning is carried out in the form of a dry cleaning to remove debris, loose dirt, residue from the floor, etc. by sweeping or vacuuming.
Basic Cleaning / Intensive Interim Cleaning
A basic cleaning is to be carried out at least 48 hours after the installation is finished and complete drying of the joint compound has occurred.
A possibly pronounced cement film formation should be eliminated already during the "washing after grouting".
Building dust, dirt crusts and light cement films are removed with the using a slightly alkaline basic cleaning agent, diluted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, into the wiping water in a two-stage wet wiping process. After an exposure or soaking treatment time of 10-15 minutes, the dissolved dirt liquid is absorbed by suction or mop or the coating is repeatedly washed with clear water so that no residues of cleaners or dirt are present on the surface.
When using single-disc machines, use red micro-fibre pads or brushes.
As soon as installation-building residues can no longer be removed by maintenance cleaning, intensive, manual or machine interim cleaning should be carried out. The choice of detergents depends on the degree of soiling and the nature of the residues.
First-treatment / Impregnation
Ceramic surfaces are easy to clean. These surfaces do not require further treatment in the form of initial treatment.
For ceramic surfaces, we recommend the use of Lithofin products:
Hy Clean Cleaning Cleaner
Clear Top Intensive Cleaner
If other agents are used, the suitability of the cleaning products must be checked before starting to clean. The respective manufacturer data must be observed.
The content of this cleaning recommendation is based on our many years of experience and takes into account the current state of the cleaning technology provided that it was known to us at the time of publication. However, no liability is accepted for the completeness, correctness and applicability of this information in individual cases. The instructions of the cleaning and care agent manufacturers must be observed.
Installation instructions for large ceramic tiles and panels
This installation guide is a general guideline for the application and laying of large-format ceramic tiles and panels with adhesive mortars and glues on floors and walls indoors, which must be adapted to the existing site conditions.
It is recommended to contact the adhesive manufacturer or the material manufacturer for detailed information.
Construction site conditions
The laying of large-format ceramic tiles can be carried out at substrate and ambient temperatures of +5 to 35 ° C. At high temperatures and/or drafts, accelerated skin formation on the adhesive mortar must be expected. Therefore, the adhesive mortar should only be applied in sections and should be checked for skin formation before inserting the panels. If the skin is formed, the adhesive mortar must be combed again.
The substrates must be dry, sufficiently strong, stable, solid, mechanically strong, completely flat and free of adhesion-reducing substances (dust, grease, oil, wax, paint and release agent). It must comply with the generally accepted rules of technology and be manufactured according to these. All substrates must be free of adhesion-reducing layers and impurities, for example sandblasting, grinding, shot-peening etc., by means of suitable mechanical background preparation methods.
The flat surfaces of the mounting and installation surfaces are subject to increased requirements that exceed DIN 18202. It is therefore usually necessary to compensate for this with a compensating and spreading compound and to plan it as a special work step. For a measuring point distance of 2 m, a variation of 2 mm should not be exceeded. In order to avoid damage to the covering material during point loading and / or impacting, a mostly cavity-free installation in buttering-floating process is required. This laying technique is absolutely necessary especially for ceramic elements in thin material thicknesses.
Subfloors to accommodate large size tiles and panels must be sufficiently firm and rigid. Strong deformations of the substrate during point loads can result in massive damage to the covering material.
Screed thicknesses and gypsum thicknesses must therefore be adjusted to the payloads to be accepted. The screed dimensioning and production must be carried out in accordance with the requirements of DIN 18560.
Cracks in the subfloor must be closed with suitable reaction resins.
Prefabricated screeds, gypsum-bonded or cement-bonded, must be matched and approved for acceptance of large-format tiles and slabs in the constructional design of the entire floor structure.
Necessary movement joints in the substructure and in the covering material as well as their execution are to be dimensioned and specified by the architect.
Concrete must meet the requirements of DIN 206-1 and DIN 1045-2 in its quality and be sufficiently dry.
Adhesion-reducing or minimum strength layers on the concrete surface, such as, for example, shale oil residue, cement glue layers, etc., must be removed by applying suitable substrate preparation methods such as, for example, sandblasting, grinding.
The surface tensile strength should be min. 1.0 N / mm2. Compressive, flexural and surface tension or adhesive tensile strength shall be adjusted to the loads to be expected from the intended use. Ceramic tiles can be laid at the earliest after 6 months. Existing construction joints must be covered in the covering. Moisture acting on the bottom side of the covering material must be avoided.
The screeds must meet the requirements of DIN 18560 in their quality. Adhesion reducing or low-tensile layers on the screed surface, such as, for example, cement glue layers, etc., must be removed by applying suitable substrate preparation methods, such as grinding, shot peening etc.
The surface tensile strength should be min. 0.5 N / mm², in the case of surfaces with a traffic load of at least 1.0 N / mm². Screed thickness, compressive, flexural and surface tensile strength or adhesive tensile strength shall be adjusted to the loads to be expected from the intended use.
Observe the specifications of the current regulations for screed work. Ceramic tiles can be laid according to the recognized rules of technology at the earliest after 28 days and with a maximum residual moisture content of ≤ 2CM-%.
The field sizes should not exceed 60 m² with side lengths of 8 m for unheated screeds or 40 m² with side lengths of approx. 6.5 m for heated screeds. It is necessary to produce squared fields (aspect ratio 1:2).
Larger fields are possible and are dependent on the binder composition, the surface geometries and the mechanical and thermal loads to be absorbed.
However, these are to be calculated by the planner. Sub-surfaces with different controllable heating circuits must be separated from each other by joints. Joints must be designed as movement joints. The minimum joint width depends on the type of screed and is 5 mm for composite screeds, 5-10 mm for screeds on separation layers, 8-10 mm for screeds on insulation. Edge joints shall be arranged with a minimum width of 10 mm at a vertically adjacent construction component. The actually required joint widths are to be dimensioned as a function of the expected changes in the length of the floor structure.
Calcium sulphate screeds
Calcium sulphate screeds must satisfy the requirements of DIN 18560. Screed thickness, compression, flexural and surface tensile strength or adhesive tensile strength shall be adjusted to the load to be expected from the intended use.
In general, calcium sulphate screeds must be roughened using a ground grinder with a grain size of 16. The surface adhesion strength should be at least 0.5 N / mm², in the case of surfaces with a traffic load stress of at least 1.0 N / mm².
The laying of the ceramic tiles can be carried out as soon as the laying subfloor has reached moisture content over the entire cross-section for unheated screed structures of ≤ 0.5 CM% or of ≤ 0.3 CM-% by heated floor constructions.
It must be ensured that moisture effects from the substrate or condensation are permanently excluded. Subdivisions with different controllable heating circuits must be separated from each other by joints.
In addition to the joint design required in the screed construction as given in the ZDB-information leaflet "Ceramic Tiles and Panels, Artificial Stone and Concrete Block on Calcium sulphate-bonded Screeds", additional expansion joints are necessary in the coating as a function of temperature expansion coefficients. The side length should not exceed 5 m for thermally stressed surfaces.
Calcium sulphate-bonded screeds must be primed with a dispersion primer prior to laying the floor. The primer must dry for at least 24 hours after application. By the use of easy-flow floor levelling compounds in layer thicknesses of more than 10 mm as well as the laying of ceramic tiles with edge lengths over 40 cm with normal setting adhesive bonding systems, the calcium sulphate must be protected from re-humidification from the levelling compound or the adhesive mortar by the two-layer application of a moisture-barrier epoxy primer.
Subfloors of metal are to be degreased (with solvents or special cleaners) and intensive de-rusting. To avoid damage caused by the influence of temperature, the different thermal expansion coefficients of the materials must be observed when laying the ceramic tiles on metal substrates. The substrate must be sufficiently rigid. Bonding is to be carried out with the reactive resin adhesive based on polyurethane resin.
APPLICATION ON WALLS
Concrete must meet the requirements of DIN EN 206-1 and DIN 1045-2 in its quality and be sufficiently dry.
Anti-corrosive or low-tensile layers on the concrete surface, such as, for example, shale oil residue, cement glue layers, etc., must be removed by applying suitable substrate preparation methods such as, for example, sandblasting, grinding etc.
The surface adhesion strength should be at least 1.0 N / mm². Ceramic tiles can be laid at the earliest after 6 months. Existing construction joints must be covered in the covering.
Cement plaster / lime cement plaster
Cement / lime cement plasters must be sufficiently solid and dry. For finished plasters, the manufacturer's information guide must be observed.
Gypsum surfaces must be completely dry (maximum residual moisture of ≤ 1.0 CM%), sufficiently strong and dust-free. Gypsum plasters are suitable for laying the ceramic tiles after prior priming and complete drying of the screed. Moisture effects on the back, such as eg on the outer walls of a cellar, must be excluded by suitable sealing measures.
Substrates Metal must be degreased (with solvents or special cleaners) and intensively de-rusting. To prevent damage caused by the influence of the temperature, different thermal expansion coefficients of the materials may have to be considered when laying the ceramic tiles on metal substrates. The substrate must be sufficiently rigid. The bonding is to be done with a reactive resin adhesive based on polyurethane resin.
Dry construction elements may be plaster or cement-bonded and are to be installed in a bend-resistant manner.
The product-specific assembly and processing instructions of the manufacturers and generally recognized rules of technology and must be observed (eg DIN 18183 mounting walls made of gypsum boards or DIN 4103 non-load-bearing inner partitions).
When designing floor coverings for drywall constructions, the system manufacturers must be informed of the maximum possible surface loads of the wall structures made by the wall covering materials.
Dry construction elements must be selected taking into account moisture effects and special project-specific requirements. Gypsum-bonded drywall elements must be protected against moisture from subsequent material installation and use.
Dry construction elements are generally to be treated with the given primer of the manufacturer or, if no specifications are available, with a universal primer. For the priming of dry building elements, product-specific drying intervals with mixing ratios must be considered.
APPLICATION, PLACEMENT AND MIXTURE OF LARGE FORMAT, CERAMIC TILES
General notes on installation
According to the technical information "Large-format ceramic tiles and slabs" published by the Association of Tiles and Natural Stone in May 2010, the following points must be observed when laying large tiles and slabs:
- Filling the substrate to improve flatness
- If possible, no installation in offset
- Technically necessary minimum joint width ≥ 3 mm
- Smaller field sizes for sun-irradiated and / or heated constructions (maximum 5 m side length)
- Protection of calcium sulphate particles against penetration of moisture
- In the case of large-format tiles and boards of 0.25 m² or more, a backside scratch compound is necessary to improve adhesion
- The use of large-format tiles and slabs generally retards the setting time of the thin-bed mortar; This must be taken into account when considering access (setting time required)
Careful selection of the glue mortar or adhesive must be made in order to ensure a durable and quality-appropriate gluing (see table).
Ceramic tiles >1600 cm² (40 x 40 cm) are to be laid on floor surfaces with quick-setting, fast-drying adhesive mortar. For smaller formats and use on wall surfaces, this is also preferred, but not absolutely necessary.
The trowel toothing is to be chosen in such a way as to ensure adequate wetting of the back of the ceramic tiles with adhesive mortar. In order to ensure a complete wetting and to a large extent full coverage, the buttering-floating method (combined process) has to be carried out.
The ceramic tiles must be installed or laid in accordance with the instructions in the technical data sheets of the respective adhesive mortar or adhesives to be used.
For cement-bonded adhesive mortars, adhesive bed thicknesses of at least 5 mm are required to ensure adequate tension relief.
The ceramic tiles may only be laid with products which are suitable for the formability and the specific properties of the substrate, the dimensions of the panels and the laying conditions. The width of the expansion joints shall be determined by the building planner in accordance with the expected temperature expansions of the panels, taking into account the manufacturer's specifications.
Prior to grouting, sticking or adhesive-specific waiting times observe waiting period (at 23 ° C and 50% RH), depending on the type of adhesive used, from 24 hours to days.
The grouting is carried out with fast-setting and fast-drying, hydraulically setting and bleed out free joint mortars, for joint widths from 2 to 20 mm or flexible, high-grade, cementitious, plastic-modified joint mortar, water-repellent, for joint widths of 2 to 6 mm or 2 Up to 20 mm. Two-component, chemical-resistant reaction resin adhesive and joint mortar, as well as two-component, chemical-resistant epoxy resin-based mortar.
Adhesive films, smears or remnants of jointing compounds on ceramic tiles must be completely washed or removed with other cleaning agents. Do not use acids or other products that can damage the joints or the ceramic tiles.
Elongation and connection in ceramic coverings can be closed elastically with an acetate-crosslinking silicone sealant.
Surfaces and cleaning Ceramic worktops
The STONE.De range offers porcelain ceramics in various finishes, which apart from their use characteristics differ in appearance and haptics of the surfaces. Polished, matt, natural and textured surfaces are highly compacted and therefore easy to clean. These surfaces do not require any further treatment in the form of an impregnation after installation of the worktops.
STONE.De Offers cleaning and care products adapted to the respective products. The following procedure applies to worktops made of porcelain ceramics:
The high quality and creative looks of the TOP STONE ceramic worktops are characterized by the use of different, different raw materials. Thus, for example, colour differences between production batches or feldspar particles located in the material are unavoidable. Their presence is not a reason for complaint, but they correspond to the living and natural character of this stone. The natural or matt honed surfaces are highly compacted, water repellent and do not require any further surface treatment in the form of an impregnation.
TOP STONE Ceramic worktops are resistant to conventional acids such as citric and acetic acid. Food colouring such as by coffee, tea, wine, mustard, vegetables or fruit do not leave any traces that are not removable, but should be removed as soon as possible after their formation and do not allow to dry out on the surface.
Coarse scrubbing sponges, steel wool or steel pads must never be used for any purpose whatsoever. Ink, printing ink, text markers, nail polish remover, paint remover, oven cleaning products, drain cleaner, solvent and bleaching agent, washing benzene must not come into contact with the worktop.
Cleaning agents such as alkaline cleaners with a pH of more than 10, strong acid detergents, scrubby milk, chlorine-containing detergents, baking oven spray and aggressive fat remover must not be used.
Aggressive chemicals such as caustic soda, battery acid, hydrofluoric acid must also not be brought into contact with the work surface.
If these agents reach the surface, they should be removed as soon as possible using a neutral detergent and then rinsed several times with clear water.
On site processing such as cutting, drilling, grinding can lead to irreparable damage. We recommend the use of suitable cutting pads to prevent the difficult removal of metallurgy marks and to keep your cutting tools safe.
Cooking pan bottoms with very high temperatures can cause discoloration in the material over a longer period of exposure. Since cracks can also be caused by shock heat input, we recommend the use of suitable pot holders for storing hot pans, pots, baking trays, etc. coming directly from the hob or oven.
The panels must not be used as a ladder, e.g. for window cleaning or replacement of luminaires as there is a risk of cracking caused by excessive point loading in the sensitive edge areas of the sink and hob.
In households with very calcareous water can lead to unsightly lime scale deposits on the surface of the worktop. The resulting "Grey Film" is more noticeable with dark work sheets than with light coloured ones. In order to prevent such deposits, as little water as possible should dry on the surface of the worktop. Water remaining on the surface after cleaning should be absorbed by drying with a cotton kitchen towel to prevent the formation of such deposits.
However, already formed lime scale deposits can be completely removed by observing the previously described procedures.
Cleaning and care of TOPSTONE ceramic kitchen worktops,
For daily cleaning and maintenance, we recommend the Lithofin KF HyClean cleaning product. It can be ordered from Stone.De for delivery together with the worktop. It can also be ordered by your local stone product dealer. Please follow the instructions given in the enclosed maintenance instructions and observe the manufacturer's instructions regarding application, processing and disposal. Alternatively, the use of lukewarm water with a splash of acetic acid or vinegar cleaner is sufficient. Vinegar permanently binds the lime present in the tap water. A microfiber cloth should be used for moistening. The remaining water film is then to be removed using a dry kitchen towel.
Please avoid the use of detergents containing waxy and film-forming ingredients. These cleansing agents can form sparingly soluble layers of wax as well as so-called "lime soaps" on the surface of the worktop, which appear in the form of grey deposits. Strong abrasive or strong bleaching agents are also discouraged. Porcelain ceramic has a similar surface to glass, so the cleaning can also be carried out according to similar methods using a household glass cleaner.
In case of heavy contamination or stubborn layer formation, a basic cleaning can become necessary. For this intensive cleaning, we recommend the use of a mild acidic cleaner (pH 4-5), or the KF ClearTop product contained in the Lithofin cleaning & care kit. Please read the care instructions and instructions supplied by the manufacturer before use.
This particularly applies to existing disposal and warning notices, as well as the requirement for the use of protective products and, where appropriate, protective measures.
"Care set for ceramic worktops"
Contains: 500 ml Lithofin KF HyClean (spray bottle), 250 ml
Lithofin KF ClearTop, microfiber cloth, care instructions
Instructions and recommendations for the assembly of worktops
The worktops are packed and stored in a professional manner after completion of production, quality control and the preparation of photo documentation: either on a forklift or pallet truck, transportable one-way wooden A-frames or on multi-way transport frames made of steel. The A-frames and racks must always be stored indoors during eventual inter-transport reloading!
Upon receipt of the goods, the consignment is to be checked for damage, completeness and accuracy of measurements. Special attention should also be given to the cut-outs, type and number of edge processing (comparison with drawing) as well as any obvious defects. Complaints must be reported in writing immediately, but at the latest within 7 working days from dispatch. After the expiry of this period and after any assembly, no complaints of obvious defects can be accepted.
Handling, Breaking resistance
TOPSTONE worktops with edge profiles higher than the actual material thickness are reinforced by a high-quality, stable support construction. The risk of breaking through is generally only given if the work piece is not properly handled.
Transport and handling should only be carried out in a vertical (upright) position. Special care must be taken when handling the parts with cut-outs. There is an increased risk of damage by transport in a horizontal position due to the thin areas between cut-outs!
Do not stand on the worktops to clean windows or to replace light bulbs. This creates the risk of an excessive point load, which can lead to the formation of cracks, especially in the sensitive edge areas of the sink and the cooking area.
Eventual attempts of own processing such as cutting; drilling or grinding should be avoided and generally only carried out by a specialist company, since this can otherwise lead to irreparable damage. Point loads, as well as inadequate alignment of the support cabinets, regarding uneven horizontal levelling, can lead to cracking. Please be sure to refer to our information on the worktop surfaces and protrusions.
Particularly in the cut-out areas of the worktops, sufficient, possibly additional supports, must be added to ensure an even load acceptance.
For the installation of under-mount of basins, mounting aids are installed or supplied from the factory. The installation of the basin on the underside of the stone slabs can be done without any problems. Built-in devices intended for the purpose of heating or cooling must be insulated in such a way that, a drastic exposure of temperature into the stone is avoided!
The room and object lighting must be positioned with a sufficient clearance to the stone surface. The illuminating body and the illuminate must correspond to the state of the art and must be equipped with the specified UV filters.
Before assembling the worktops, it is imperative to check the differences for absolute levelness, load bearing capacity and torsional strength. Multiple-part worktops are to be placed on existing or to be constructed supports and to be aligned flush together. The worktop elements must be installed free of any tension and must never be fixed with screws. Any eventual unevenness in the surface regardless of how slight must be compensated for by flat underlayment parts.
Wall joints of at least 5 mm must be made, which can be covered by splashback strips, or can be sealed with neutral-curing silicones. Butt-joint sealing should also be made with natural stone silicones. Before applying silicone, the worktop surface should be protected with adhesive tape. Do not apply any silicone or adhesive on the surfaces of the worktops! The drying or even curing should be avoided (remove fresh silicone or glue residue immediately by cleaning).
Back wall panels or splashbacks made of quartz stone are to be installed using fast setting cement adhesives or with natural silicones.
If TOPSTONE worktops are combined with other materials such as glass, steel or wood, a flexible fixation of the panel as well as a flexible filling of the joint must be made in order to absorb possible expansion of the different materials.
Please refer to our data regarding the different thermal expansion coefficients. Cut-outs for cooking zones and sinks are produced with corner radius of at least R = 3 mm. A minimum of 3 mm all-round gap for ceramic panels and 1 mm for sinks must be taken into account in order to prevent possible expansion of the devices and dimensional tolerances of the manufacturers.
- The workpieces are fragile!
- Worktops may only be transported in an upright (vertically) position.
- Support cabinets must be prepared strictly level.
- The worktops must not be screwed in any way.
- Make sure that the unevenness is balanced by using underlayments over the entire length, glue in place and do not screw it together
- Ensure tension-free resting of the worktop on the support cabinets.
- Do not apply any silicone on the worktop; tape the edges of the worktop accordingly.
- Flush cut-outs (hob or sink) have tolerances in the fold depth, which must be compensated by underlayments.
The content of this information is based on our many years of experience and takes into account the current state of technology as long as it was known to us at the time of publication and does not claim to be complete and correct. New editions replace this version at the time of their release.